This page provides information on the Dynamics rollout.

Overview


This rollout controls the dynamics parameters for simulations. It can be accessed in the Attribute Editor when a FireSmokeSim object is selected. For liquid-specific dynamics, see the Liquids rollout.

UI Path: ||Select PhoenixFDSim|| > Attribute Editor > Dynamics rollout

 

Parameters


 

 

Motion Inertia | windFromMovement – When enabled, moving the simulator object over a series of frames causes inertial forces in the opposite direction of the movement. This allows you to link the simulator to a moving object and keep the size of the grid relatively small, as opposed to creating a large grid that covers the entire path of the moving object. Motion Inertia can be used for moving ground and water vehicles, torches, fireballs, rockets, etc. When this option is used together with the Initial Fill Up option and Open Container Wall conditions, a simulation of moving an object over a sea surface can be performed. For more information, see the Moving Geometry vs. Moving Simulator section of the Tips and Tricks page or the Inertial Forces  example below.

When running liquid simulations with the Initial Fill Up option and Open Container Wall conditions, the surface of the generated liquid should remain smooth. If you encounter artifacts in the form of horizontal lines perpendicular to the direction of movement, with Motion Inertia enabled, please ensure that the Scene Scale is reasonable considering the type of effect being simulated. Other possible solutions in case tweaking the scale is not possible are to either increase the Steps per Frame, or to reduce the Cell Size of the Simulator.

Liquid artifacts usually appear when the liquid particles move a great distance between frames. Increasing the Scene Scale or the Steps per Frame allows them to stabilize, which in turn keeps the surface smooth.

Gravity | gravity, gravityEnbl – When enabled, a standard gravity of 9.8 m/s 2 is automatically added. This value is a multiplier and scales the gravity accordingly. You can also use negative gravity.

Gravity Vector | gravityVec, gravityVecEnbl – When enabled, a custom gravity force vector is used instead of the default one (0, -9.8, 0).

Time Scale | timeScale – Specifies a time multiplier that can be used for slow motion effects. For more information, see the Time Scale example below.

In order to achieve the same simulation look when changing the Time Scale, the Steps per frame value must be changed accordingly. For example, when decreasing the Time Scale from 1.0 to 0.5, Steps per frame must be decreased from 4 to 2. All animated objects in the scene (moving objects and sources) must be adjusted as well.

Cooling | cooling – This parameter controls the cooling of the fluid due to radiation. The temperature in the simulator is gradually reduced until it reaches 300.

Phoenix FD temperatures are in Kelvin, so 300 is room temperature - the temperature where the smoke neither ascends nor descends. A Cooling value of 1.0 corresponds approximately to the speed real smoke with a half thickness of 4 meters cools down. The real cooling is a very complicated process similar to the Global Illumination rendering, so here a simplified formula is used.

Smoke Dissipation | smokeDissipation – Used in simulations where the smoke needs to disappear, e.g. steam, clouds, etc. If you set this parameter to the maximum value of 1, the smoke will disappear immediately.

Smoke Buoyancy | smokeBuoyancy – The buoyancy of the smoke. Positive values make the smoke move upwards. Negative values make it move downwards.

Fuel Buoyancy | fuelBuoyancy – Specifies the buoyancy of the fuel.

 

 

Example: Motion Inertia

 


 

The following video provides examples to show the differences between Motion Inertia values at 0.00.5, and 1.0.

 

Example: Time Scale

 


 

The following video provides examples to show the differences between Time Scale values at 0.11.0, and 2.0.

 

Vorticity


 

 

Classic Vorticity | vorticity – Adds small-scale detail that is dissipated naturally by the grid-based simulation. Prevents the simulation from becoming smooth and laminar. Unlike Turbulence, which does not care about the fluid's motion at all, the Classic Vorticity algorithms works depending on the velocity of the simulation and changes the velocity field in order to reinforce vortices and add more detail to the simulation. For more information, see the Vorticity example below.

Massive Vorticity | vorticityModV  – This mode generally improves the vorticity detail and behavior. Unlike Classic Vorticity which reinforces vortices throughout the grid, the Massive Vorticity gets applied more strongly only to some parts of the fluid, making a difference between thin air with no smoke or temperature, the smoke and temperature's surface, and the inside volume of fluids. The added detail is equally strong for both the fast and the slow moving parts of the fluid. Massive Vorticity also does not produce a boiling effect that is present in the Classic Vorticity algorithm, which tears up the slower moving parts of the fluid excessively and stops the fluid's motion. For more information, see the Vorticity example below.

Smoke Surface/Temperature Surface | vorticitySurfSm / vorticitySurfT – These options create vortices only on the smoke/temperature channel's surface without disturbing the flow in the inner volume of the fluid. This way massive vorticity won't block the fluid's general motion and break the fluid apart as the classic vorticity does. It's split into separate smoke and temperature multipliers for additional flexibility. For example, in a fire-only simulation, you need to use Temp. Surface, while in a smoke-only simulation, you need Smoke Surface instead.

Large Scale | vorticity_lowThe large-scale multiplier reinforces the big vortex flows in the inner part of the fluid. The effect is similar to what higher Conservation quality can achieve, with the difference that the Large Scale vorticity does not respect obstacles, so it might not be suitable in a more complicated setup. For more information, see the Vorticity example below.

 

 

Example: Vorticity

 


 

The following example shows the difference between the Classic and Massive types of Vorticity.

 


Classic Vorticity = 0

 


Classic Vorticity = 0.3

 


Massive Smoke Vorticity = 0.3
Large Scale = 0.3

 

 


Randomize


These options add random fluctuations in the fluid's velocity for each grid voxel. It works in combination with the Vorticity parameters.

The options in the Randomize section do not affect Liquid Simulations.

 

 

Amount | randAmount – The amount of randomization. Only the velocity length is changed; the velocity direction remains the same.

Dynamics | randDynamics – The speed of change of the fluctuations. The higher the value, the faster the random noise will change over time.

Conservation


The conservation process gives the fluid its characteristic swirling motion. It transforms straight-line movement of the fluid into swirling vortices. The higher the strength of the conservation, the farther the motion forces will be propagated throughout the container, so a movement in one point will cause the fluid to start moving at a distance too. The conservation directs smoke and fire into realistic shapes and helps liquids to support their own weight when at rest, and to fill up a volume they are poured into.

Internally, the conservation updates the directions and magnitudes of the velocities of each cell in the grid, preparing them for the Advection step when the content will be moved between cells. Basically it tries to equalize the velocities coming in and going out from each cell, and does this in many passes, getting closer to the perfect equilibrium. The number of passes is the conservation strength (quality). In nature, conservation has an infinite strength and is always perfect. In Phoenix FD, the better the quality of the conservation is, the farther the movement from one point will be propagated, making the simulation more realistic, but at the expense of longer simulation time for each frame. There are a number of conservation methods in Phoenix FD that you can choose between, depending on the type of your simulation. Each of them comes with pros and cons for the given situation.

 

 

Method | conservMethod – Specifies the method for simulating the conservation. For more information, see the Conservation Method Types example below.

Direct Symmetric – This method has a long range and can transfer movement and pressure from one point of the grid can to distant parts of the grid. It also achieves strong conservation without having to boost the quality too much, and thus the fluid can roll and swirl quite well. Thus it is well suited for simulation of explosions with shockwaves.
Direct Smooth – The smooth method is quite similar to Direct Symmetric. It produces a smoother velocity field and is stronger than Direct Symmetric, but doesn't keep the symmetry that well and it will produce less detail.
Buffered – This method has the weakest conservation strength and shortest range, but produces detail that works well when simulating fire.
PCG Symmetric – This method provides a very strong conservation, but works at a shorter range than the Direct Symmetric method. It actually produces better symmetry than Direct Symmetric and so it can be used to simulate nuclear mushrooms or other effects where high symmetry is crucial. It is also the best method to use for smoke or explosions in general. The Uniform Density option is ignored in this mode, so simulating only fire with this mode may not produce as good results as using the other methods that allow Uniform Density to be enabled.

Quality | conservQuality – Increases the strength of the conservation. It will help cases when the liquid or smoke is losing volume, or the swirling of the smoke needs to be increased. Beware that increasing the quality will slow down the simulation.
For more information, see the Quality example below.

Uniform Density | conservUniform – When enabled, the mass of the fluid will not be considered. Fire simulations work better with this option on, which ignores the mass. However, unchecking this option might be useful for pure smoke simulations or explosions (for fire/smoke simulations the inverse of the temperature is considered the mass; the hotter fluid will be lighter and the cooler fluid will be heavier, just as in nature).

 

 

Example: Conservation Method Types

 


 

The following example shows the difference between the Symmetric, Smooth and Buffered Conservation Method types.

 


Symmetric conservation

 


Smooth conservation

 


Buffered conservation

 

 


 

Example: Conservation Quality

 


 

The animation below demonstrates how to cope with losing the volume of smoke. A smoke source is placed in an almost closed room, where the only exit is near the floor. In the real world the smoke will fill the room and then reach the exit, just because once created, the smoke is accumulated and does not disappear. However, when the conservation parameter is low, the smoke does not keep its amount and disappears, never reaching the hole.

Note that the smoke reaches the hole with conservation quality at about 200, and this value is not accidental. The vertical size of the grid is 100, and if it was smaller, the conservation value that allows the smoke to reach the hole would have been smaller too. You can think of this parameter as a distance scope in which the conservation spreads the velocity influence.

 


Quality = 8

 


Quality = 50

 


Quality = 200

 

 



Material transfer (Advection)


The advection process moves the fluid along its velocity inside the grid. A problem of all grid-based simulators is that moving the content of one cell to a new place in the grid will blur the result when the destination lies between cells (and it usually does!), thus losing the fine details with each new frame. Phoenix FD has a number of advection methods that battle this problem in different ways, each one with its own pros and cons depending on the situation.

Phoenix FD may perform advection more than once per frame, or once in a number of frames, depending on the Steps per frame (SPF) parameter. To get the best detail for smoke and fire, it is best to keep the SPF low. On the other hand a higher SPF works better to keep liquids steady and smooth, and is better for quickly moving fluids in general.

 

 


Method | advMethod – Specifies the algorithm used for calculating the advection. For more information, see the Advection Method Types example below.

Backtrace (Classic) – This method has good stability, but does not strictly conserve the quantity of the transferred material and your fluid may start to gain or lose volume in certain situations. In such cases increasing the Steps per frame (SPF) will help preserve the volume.
Forward transfer – Good conservation abilities, but less stability compared to the classic method. Tends to produce cross-like artifacts.
Multi-pass – This less dissipative method produces more fine details and keeps the smoke interface sharper compared to other methods. This method is recommended for large scale explosions, veil-like smoke, pyroclastic flows, and all other situations where sharpness is important.

Steps Per Frame (SPF) | advSPF – Determines how many calculations of the simulated grid are performed between two consecutive frames of the timeline. For more information, see the Steps per Frame examples below.

One of the most important parameters of the simulator, with significant impact on quality and performance. To understand how to use it, keep in mind that the simulation is a sequential process and happens step by step. It produces good results if each simulation step introduces small changes, but it's also a trade-off between performance and detail, as described below.

For example, if you have an object that is hitting the liquid surface with high speed, the result will be not good if at the first step the object is far away from the water, and at the second step, the object is already deep under the water. You have to introduce intermediate steps until the changes of each step get small enough. This parameter creates these steps within each frame. A value of 1 means that there are no intermediate steps and each step is exported into the cache file. A value of 2 means that there is one intermediate step, i.e. each second step is exported to the cache file while the intermediate steps are just calculated, but not exported.

Signs that this parameter needs to be increased are:

  • Liquid simulations have too many single liquid particles.
  • Liquid simulations are torn and chaotic.
  • Liquid simulations of streams have steps or other periodical artifacts.
  • Fire/Smoke simulations have artifacts that produce a grainy appearance.

More often than not, those issues will be caused by the simulation moving too quickly (e.g. the emission from the source is very strong or the objects in the scene are moving very fast). In such cases you should use a higher SPF.

Keep in mind that higher Steps Per Frame decreases the performance in a linear way, i.e. if you increase the SPF twice, your simulation will go twice as slow. However, the quality does not have a linear relation to the SPF. Each simulation step kills fine details, and thus for maximum detail it's best to use the lowest possible SPF that runs without any of the issues mentioned above. For additional information, please refer to Phoenix FD Explained.

 

Example: Advection Method Types

 


 

The following example shows the difference between the Classic and Multi-Pass advection types.

 


Classic Advection

 


Multi-pass Advection

 

 



 

Example: Steps Per Frame (Liquid)

 


 

The following video provides examples to show the differences of Steps per Frame values of 15, and 15.

 

Example: Steps Per Frame (Fire/Smoke)

 


 

The first series in this example shows the differences in a Fire/Smoke simulation when the Steps Per Frame is set to 12, and 8.

 


SPF = 1

 


SPF = 2

 


SPF = 8

 

 

 

TexUVW Control


The main purpose of the Texture UVW feature is to provide dynamic UVW coordinates for texture mapping that follow the simulation. If such simulated texture coordinates are not present for mapping, textures assigned to your simulation will appear static, with the simulated content moving through the image. This undesired behavior is often referred to as 'texture swimming'.

UVW coordinates are generated by simulating an additional Texture UVW Grid Channel which has to be enabled under the Output roll-out for the settings below to have any effect.

The custom UVW texture coordinates can be used for advanced render-time effects, such as recoloring of mixing fluids, modifying the opacity or fire intensity with a naturally moving texture, or natural movement of displacement over fire/smoke and liquid surfaces. Some examples uses are:

  • Increasing the detail of Fire/Smoke simulations at render time by adding displacement which moves along with the fluid.
  • Increasing the detail of Fire/Smoke simulations at render time by modulating the opacity of the smoke, the smoke color, or the fire color and intensity with noise maps which move along with the fluid.
  • Re-coloring of Fire/Smoke or Liquid simulations at render time, after the simulation is complete.
  • Transporting images or texture color details with Fire/Smoke or Liquid simulations.

The Texture UVW channel values represent the UVW coordinates of each Cell in the Simulator, with a range of [ 0 - 1 ]. The channel is initialized when a simulation is started in one of two ways:

  1. By inheriting the UVs from the source geometry, when Inherit TexUVW from Geom is enabled on the Phoenix FD Source. The UVW channel will be based on the UVs of the emission geometry. This option is useful when simulating melting objects – textures assigned to the Volumetric Shader (for Fire/Smoke simulations) or the material (for Liquid simulations) will be carried by the simulation.
  2. When inheriting of UVs is disabled on the Source - depending on the position of the emitting object in the Simulator's bounding box. If Grid roll-out → Adaptive Grid is enabled, the Texture UVW coordinates in expanded voxels beyond the initial grid will be greater than one if the grid is expanding in a positive direction (+X, +Y, +Z), and less than zero otherwise. This means that textures assigned to simulations using the Adaptive Grid feature will be automatically tiled/repeated as many times as the final size of the Simulator is larger than its initial size.

 

Interpolation AmounttexUVWInterpol –  Blends between the UVW coordinates of the liquid particle at time of birth and its UVW coordinates at the current position in the Simulator. When set to 0, no interpolation will be performed - as a consequence, textures assigned to the fluid mesh will be stretched as the simulation progresses. This is best used for simulations of melting objects. When set to 1, the UVW coordinates of the fluid mesh will be updated with a frequency based on the Interpol.Step parameter - this will essentially re-project the UVWs to avoid stretching but cause the textures assigned to the fluid to 'pop' as the re-projection is applied. If you intend to apply e.g. a displacement map to a flowing river, set this parameter to a value between 0.1 and 0.3 - this will suppress both the effects of stretching and popping. See the Interpolation example below.

Interpolation SteptexUVWInterpolStep – Specifies the update frequency for the UVW coordinates. When set to 1, the UVWs are updated on every frame, taking into account the Interpolation parameter. See the Interpolation Step example below.

Antitear StrengthtexUVWAntitear – [ Only available for Fire/Smoke simulations ] Use this option when the assigned texture appears twisted, torn apart or otherwise distorted. This may happen when the simulation is moving very fast, therefore increase both the Antitear Strength and Antitear Iterations to let Phoenix FD attempt to resolve the distortion.

Antitear IterationstexUVWAntitearIterations – [ Only available for Fire/Smoke simulations ] The number of Antitear iterations performed for every Step of the simulation. Increasing this parameter will help resolve UVW distortion issues by allowing Phoenix FD to run the Antitear Strength operation multiple times. Note that this may slightly increase the time it takes for the simulation to complete.

 

 

Example: Interpolation


 

The following video provides examples to show the differences of Interpolation values of 00.1, and 1, and an Interpolation Step of 1.

 

 

Example: Interpolation Step


 

The following video provides examples to show the differences of Interpolation Step values of 13, and 6.