The camera rollout controls the way the scene geometry is projected onto the image.
The cameras in V-Ray generally define the rays that are cast into the scene, which essentially is how the scene is projected onto the screen. V-Ray supports several camera types: Standard, Spherical, Cylindrical (point), Cylindrical (ortho), Box and Fish eye. Orthographic views are supported too.
Type - from this list you can select the type of the camera. See the examples below for a more detailed discussion on camera types.
- Default - this is a standard pinhole camera.
- Spherical - this is a spherical camera which means that the camera lenses has spherical form.
- Cylindrical (point) - with this type of camera all rays have a common origin - they are cast from the center of the cylinder. In the vertical direction the camera acts as a pinhole camera and in the horizontal direction it acts as a spherical camera.
- Cylindrical (ortho) - in vertical direction the camera acts as an orthographic view and in the horizontal direction it acts as a spherical camera.
- Box - the box camera is simply 6 standard cameras placed on the sides of a box. This type of camera is excellent for generation of environment maps for cube mapping. It may be very useful for GI too - you can calculate the irradiance map with a Box camera, save it to file and you can reuse it with a Standard camera that can be pointed at any direction.
- Fish eye - this special type of camera captures the scene as if it is normal pinhole camera pointed at an absolutely reflective sphere which reflects the scene into the camera's shutter. You can use the Dist/FOV settings to control what part of the sphere will be captured by the camera. The red arc in the diagram corresponds to the FOV angle. Note that the sphere has always a radius of 1.0.
- Warped spherical - another spherical camera with slightly different mapping formula.
Example: Camera Types
The images below show the difference between the different camera types:
Example: Camera Types Explained
This example shows how the rays for different camera types are generated. The red arcs in the diagrams correspond to the FOV angles.
Override FOV - with this setting you can override SketchUp's FOV angle. This is because some V-Ray camera types can take FOV ranges from 0 to 360 degrees.
Auto-fit - this setting controls the auto-fit option of the Fish-eye camera. When Auto-fit is enabled V-Ray will calculate the Dist value automatically so that the rendered image fits horizontally with the image's dimensions.
Height - here you can specify the height of the Cylindrical (ortho) camera. This setting is available only when the Type is set to Cylindrical (ortho).
Dist - this setting applies only to the Fish-eye camera. The Fish-eye camera is simulated as a Standard camera pointed to an absolutely reflective sphere (with a radius of 1.0) that reflects the scene into the camera's shutter. The Dist value contorts how far is the camera from the sphere's center (which is how much of the sphere will be captured by the camera). Note: this setting has no effect when the Auto-fit option is enabled.
Curve - this setting applies only to the Fish-eye camera. This setting contorts the way the rendered image is warped. A value of 1.0 corresponds to a real world Fish-eye camera. As the value approaches 0.0 the warping is increased. As the value approaches 2.0 the warping is reduced. Note: in fact this value controls the angle at which rays are reflected by the virtual sphere of the camera.
On - enables the VRay physical camera.
Override Focal length - when enabled we can set the field of view directly.
Specify Film width - specifies the horizontal size of the film gate.
Type - determines the type of the camera. This mostly has an effect on the motion blur effect produced by the camera:
- Still camera - simulates a still photo camera with a regular shutter.
- Cinematic camera - simulates a motion-picture camera with a circular shutter.
- Video camera - simulates a shutter-less video camera with a CCD matrix.
Shutter speed - the shutter speed, in inverse seconds, for the still photographic camera. For example, shutter speed of 1/30 s corresponds to a value of 30 for this parameter.
Shutter angle - shutter angle (in degrees) for the cinematic camera.
Shutter offset - shutter offset (in degrees) for the cinematic camera.
Latency - CCD matrix latency, in seconds, for the video camera.
White balance - allows additional modification of the image output. Objects in the scene that have the specified color will appear white in the image. Note that only the color hue is taken into consideration; the brightness of the color is ignored. There are several presets that can be used, most notably the Daylight preset for exterior scenes.
Example: White Balance
Using the white balance color allows additional modification of the image output. Objects in the scene that have the specified color will appear white in the image. E.g. for daylight scenes this should be peach color to compensate for the color of the sun light etc.
Exposure is on, f-number is 8.0, Shutter speed is 200.0, ISO is 200.0, Vignetting is on.
F-number - determines the width of the camera aperture and, indirectly, exposure. If the Exposure option is checked, changing the f-number will affect the image brightness.
Example: Exposure Control - f-number (f-stop)
Note: All the images from the following examples are rendered using the VRaySun and VRaySky set with their default parameters.
This parameter controls the aperture size of the virtual camera. Lowering the f-number value increases the aperture size and so makes the image brighter, since more light enters the camera. In reverse, increasing the f-number makes the image darker, as the aperture is closed. This parameter also determines the amount of the DOF effect, see .
Exposure is on, Shutter speed is 60.0, ISO is 200, Vignetting is on, White balance is white.
f-number is 8.0
f-number is 6.0
f-number is 4.0
Film speed (ISO) - determines the film power (i.e. sensitivity). Smaller values make the image darker, while larger values make it brighter
Example: Exposure Control: Film Speed (ISO)
This parameter determines the sensitivity of the film and so the brightness of the image. If the film speed (ISO) is high (film is more sensitive to the light), the image is brighter. Lower ISO values mean that the film is less sensitive and produces a darker image.
Exposure is on, Shutter Speed is 60.0, f-number is 8.0, Vignetting is on, White balance is white.
ISO is 400.
ISO is 800.
ISO is 1600.
Distortion - specifies the distortion coefficient for the camera lens. A value of 0.0 means no distortion; positive values produce "barrel" distortion, while negative values produce "pillow" distortion.
The difference between the two types of distortion is slightly visible. The Cubic type should be used in some camera tracking programs like SynthEyes , Boujou, etc.
Distortion is 1.0, Distortion type is Quadratic.
Distortion is -1.0, Distortion type is Quadratic.
Distortion is 1.0, Distortion type is Cubic.
Distortion is -1.0, Distortion type is Cubic.
Zoom factor - specifies a zoom factor. Values greater than 1.0 zoom into the image; values smaller than 1.0 zoom out. This is similar to a blow-up rendering of the image
Example: Zoom Factor
This parameter determines the zooming (In and Out) of the final image. It doesn't move the camera forward nor backwards.
Exposure is on, f-number is 8.0, Shutter speed is 60.0, ISO is 200.0, Vignetting is on, White balance is white.
Zoom factor is 1.0
Zoom factor is 2.0
Zoom factor is 0.5
Lens shift - allows the simulation of shift lenses for 2-point perspective.
Specify focus - this allows you to specify a focus distance different from the camera target distance.
Vignetting - when this option is on, the optical vignetting effect of real-world cameras is simulated. You can also specify the amount of the vignetting effect, where 0.0 is no vignetting and 1.0 is normal vignetting.
This parameter controls the simulating the optical vignetting effect of real-world cameras.
Vignetting is 0.0 (vignetting is disabled).
Vignetting is 1.0.
Exposure - when this option is on, the f-number, Shutter speed and ISO settings will affect the image brightness.
Example: Exposure control - Shutter Speed
This parameter determines the exposure time for the virtual camera. The longer this time is (small Shutter speed value), the brighter the image would be. In reverse - if the exposure time is shorter (high Shutter speed value), the image would get darker. This parameter also affects the motion blur effect, see White balance.
Exposure is on, f-number is 8.0, ISO is 200, Vignetting is on, White balance is white.
Shutter speed is 60.0
Shutter speed is 30.0
Shutter speed is 125.0
Depth of Field
These parameters control the depth of field effect when rendering.
On - turns the depth-of-field effect on.
Aperture - this is the size of the virtual camera aperture, in world units. Small aperture sizes reduce the DOF effect, larger sizes produce more blur.
Override focal dist - determines the distance from the camera at which objects will be in perfect focus. Objects closer or farther than that distance will be blurred.
Subdivs - controls the quality of the DOF effect. Lower values are computed faster, but produce more noise in the image. Higher values smooth out the noise, but take more time to render. Note that the quality of sampling also depends on the settings of the DMC Sampler as well as on the chosen Image sampler.
Example: Depth of Field (DOF)
To enable the DOF effect you need to turn on the Depth-of-field option in the Sampling rollout of the physical camera. The effect is most strongly seen when the camera is close to some object, like when doing a "macro" photo. For a strong DOF effect, the camera aperture must be open wide (i.e. small f-number value). That may lead to a very burnt and bright image, so to preserve the same illuminosity over the whole image, the shutter speed must shortened. And at last but not at least the focus distance determines which part of the scene will be actually on focus. To get the focus near, you would need a small value and reverse - higher value for far focus.
Exposure is on, f-number is 1.0, Shutter speed is 4000.0, ISO is 200.0, Vignetting is on.
DOF is off.
DOF is on, Focus Distance 400.
DOF is on, Focus Distance is 4000.
Blades on - when enabled this option allows you to simulate the polygonal shape of the aperture of real-world cameras. When this option is off , the shape is assumed to be perfectly circular.
Center bias - this determines the uniformity of the DOF effect. A value of 0.0 means that light passes uniformly through the aperture. Positive values mean that light is concentrated towards the rim of the aperture, while negative values concentrate light at the center.
Rotation - specifies the orientation of the aperture shape.
Anisotropy - this option allows the stretching of the bokeh effect horizontally or vertically. Positive values stretch the effect in the vertical direction. Negative values stretch it in the horizontal direction.
On - turns motion blur on.
Duration - specifies the duration, in frames, during which the camera shutter is open.
Interval center - specifies the middle of the motion blur interval with respect to the 3ds Max frame. A value of 0.5 means that the middle of the motion blur interval is halfway between the frames. A value of 0.0 means that the middle of the interval is at the exact frame position.
Bias - this controls the bias of the motion blur effect. A value of 0.0 means that the light passes uniformly during the whole motion blur interval. Positive values mean that light is concentrated towards the end of the interval, while negative values concentrate light towards the beginning.
These parameters are used whether you are rendering from a standard camera or from a VRayPhysicalCamera with motion blur enabled.
Prepass samples - this controls how many samples in time will be computed during irradiance map calculations.
Blur particles as mesh - this option controls the blurring of particle systems. When this is on, particles will be blurred like normal meshes. However, many particle systems change the number of particles between frames. You can turn off this option to compute the motion blur from the velocity of the particles instead.
Geometry samples - this determines the number of geometry segments used to approximate motion blur. Objects are assumed to move linearly between geometry samples. For fast rotating objects, you need to increase this to get correct motion blur. Note that more geometry samples increase the memory consumption, since more geometry copies are kept in memory. You can also control the number of geometry samples on a per-object basis from the Object settings dialog.
Subdivs - determines the quality of the motion blur. Lower values are computed faster, but produce more noise in the image. Higher values smooth out the noise, but take more time to render. Note that the quality of sampling also depends on the settings of the DMC Sampler as well as on the chosen Image sampler.
Example: Vertical Shift (Camera Correction)
Using this parameter, you can archive the so-called "2 point perspective". To have that done automatically, use the Guess vertical shift button.
Vertical shift: Guess (2 point)
Vertical shift: -0.5
Vertical shift: 0.5