This page provides information on the V-Ray Camera rollouts located in the Camera Effect tab.
V-Ray makes full use of regular Modo cameras, but can also add advanced functionality to a scene camera beyond the regular Modo camera controls and attributes. Many parameters can be overridden including camera type and settings for Field of View (FOV), Motion Blur, Stereoscopic, and clipping plane functions for the scene.
To add the package, select a camera and go to V-Ray > Add or Remove V-Ray package > Add V-Ray Camera to selected cameras. Afterwards, the V-Ray Camera rollouts will appear in a camera's Camera Effect tab below the Modo native rollouts. Enabling the corresponding Modo parameters will display the V-Ray overrides.
V-Ray Camera Type Overrides
Override Modo Projection Type – Overrides the global camera settings for the current camera. Must be enabled to access Camera Type Override Parameters.
Camera type – The cameras in V-Ray generally define the rays that are cast into the scene, which essentially is how the scene is projected onto the screen. V-Ray supports several camera types: Standard, Spherical, Cylindrical (point), Cylindrical (ortho), Box, and Fish eye. Orthographic views are supported too. The type of camera can be specified from this list. For more information, please see Example: Camera Types or Example: Camera Types Explained.
Standard – A traditional pinhole camera.
Spherical – A spherical camera which means that the camera lenses has spherical form.
Cylindrical (point) – All rays have a common origin; they are cast from the center of the cylinder. In the vertical direction the camera acts as a pinhole camera, and in the horizontal direction it acts as a spherical camera.
Cylindrical (ortho) – In the vertical direction the camera acts as an orthographic view, and in the horizontal direction it acts as a spherical camera.
Box – A series or six standard cameras placed on the sides of a box. This type of camera is excellent for generating environment maps for cube mapping. It can be very useful for GI too, where a Box camera is used to calculate an irradiance map, save it to file, and reuse it with a Standard camera that can be pointed in any direction.
Fish eye – A camera that captures the scene as if it is normal pinhole camera pointed at an absolutely reflective sphere which reflects the scene into the camera's shutter. The FOV and Curve parameters control what part of the sphere will be captured by the camera.
Warped spherical – Another spherical camera with slightly different mapping formula.
Orthogonal – An orthographic camera enabling flat, non-perspective views.
Pinhole – Overrides the scene camera to force it to be a pinhole camera.
Spherical panorama – A spherical camera with independent horizontal and vertical FOV selection that is useful for generating latlong images for spherical VR use.
Cube 6x1 – A variant of the Box camera with the cube sides arranged in a single row. Unlike the Box camera's output, Cube6x1 does not produce an empty space in the output image and is useful in generating cubic VR output.
Override FOV – When enabled, overrides Modo's Angle of View angle setting. Available options are dependent on the selected Camera type.
FOV – Specifies the FOV angle (only when Override FOV is turned on and the current camera type supports FOV angle).
Height – Specifies the height of the Cylindrical (ortho) camera. This setting is available only when Camera type is set to Cylindrical (ortho).
Auto-fit – Controls the auto-fit option of the Fish-eye camera. When Auto-fit is enabled V-Ray will calculate the Dist value automatically so that the rendered image fits horizontally with the image's dimensions.
Distance – Applies only to the Fish eye camera. The Fish eye camera is simulated as a Standard camera pointed to an absolutely reflective sphere (with a radius of 1.0) that reflects the scene into the camera's shutter. The Distance value controls how far the camera is from the sphere's center (which is how much of the sphere will be captured by the camera). Note: This setting has no effect when the Auto-fit setting is enabled.
Curve – Applies only to the Fish eye camera. This setting contorts the way the rendered image is warped. A value of 1.0 corresponds to a real world Fish-eye camera. As the value approaches 0.0 the warping is increased. As the value approaches 2.0 the warping is reduced. Note: Controls the angle as which rays are reflected by the virtual sphere of the camera.
Example: Camera Types
The images below show the differences between the different camera types.
Cylindrical (point) camera
Cylindrical (ortho) camera
Fish eye camera
Example: Camera Types Explained
This example shows how the rays for different camera types are generated. The red arcs in the diagrams correspond to the FOV angles.
V-Ray Motion Blur Extra
These settings affect Modo's native motion blur settings with regard to the camera.
Camera motion blur – Turns on motion blur sampling.
Bias – Controls the motion blur effect bias . A value of 0.0 means that the light passes uniformly during the whole motion blur interval. Positive values mean that light is concentrated towards the end of the interval, while negative values concentrate light towards the beginning.
Shutter Efficiency – In real world cameras, the shutter requires some time to open and close which in turn affects the way motion blur looks. This is especially true for lenses with large apertures. To simulate this effect, the shutter efficiency parameter controls how the motion blur samples are distributed in the time interval of the shot. A value of 1 means that the samples are evenly distributed, as if the shutter opens and closes instantly. Lower values produce more realistic results by placing more samples towards the middle of the time interval.
Override motion blur samples – When enabled, override's Modo motion blur samples setting and makes the Motion blur samples parameter available.
Motion blur samples – Specifies the number of geometry samples taken when generating motion blur due to the camera movement.
V-Ray Stereoscopic Extra
These camera-related settings affect Modo's native stereoscopic functions.
Focus Method – Specifies the focus method for the two views. Possible values are:
None/parallel – Both cameras have their focus points directly in front of them.
Rotation – Achieves the stereoscopic effect by rotating the left and right views so that their focus points coincide at the distance from the eyes where the lines of sight for each eye converge (known as fusion distance).
Shear – The orientation of both views remains the same, but each eye's view is sheared along the Z axis so that the two frustums converge at the fusion distance.
Interocular Method – Specifies how the two virtual cameras will be placed in relation to the real camera in the scene.
Shift Both – Both virtual cameras will be shifted in opposite directions at a distance equal to half of the eye distance.
Shift Left – The virtual cameras are shifted to the left so that the right camera takes the position of the original camera. The left camera is shifted to the left at a distance equal to the eye distance.
Shift Right – The virtual cameras are shifted to the right so that the left camera takes the position of the original camera. The right camera is shifted to the right at a distance equal to the eye distance.
Top/Bottom Merge Angle – Specifies the viewing angle from the horizontal plane at which the pole merging effect starts. The horizontal plane is considered to be at 0.
Output Layout – Specifies the format in which the stereoscopic renders are output.
Side-by-Side – Arranges the rendered images for each eye side by side.
Top-Bottom – Arranges the rendered images for each eye one on top of another.
Shade Map Mode – Specifies the mode of operation for the shade map.
Disabled – No shade map will be used during rendering.
Render shade map – Creates and saves in the file specified in the Shademap File field.
Use shade map – Uses information from the file specified in the Shademap File field.
Render Shade Map Modes
Shademap File – Specifies the name of the file in which the shade map information is stored.
Save... – Saves the shade map to the file.
Load... – Loads the shade map from the file.
32 bit Colors – When enabled, color data is stored in full 32-bit in the shade map file; otherwise it is stored as 16-bit half-float per color component (red/green/blue).
VRST Compression – Specifies whether the data in the shade map file is compressed as a ZIP file, or has no compression.
EXR Compression – Specifies whether the data in the shade map file is compressed as a ZIP file, or has no compression.
Shade Map Exclude – Excludes some of the objects in the scene from being rendered with the shade map. All excluded objects will be rendered without the acceleration from shade maps. This is useful for object like glass windows or large flat mirrors where the stereo effect is needed for reflections/refractions in the material.
Include Child Items – When enabled, includes all items that are children of the items or groups selected in the Shade Map Exclude dropdown selection box.
Exclude List Inclusive – Only objects listed in the Shade Map Exclude dropdown will be included.
V-Ray Clipping Plane Extra
These options enable Modo's native clipping planes to have the V-Ray Clipping Extra parameters accessible in the UI.
Affect Light – When enabled, the clipper affects area light sources as well.
Only Camera Rays – The clipper affects objects as they are directly seen by the camera, but they will appear unchanged to reflection/refraction/GI rays.
Clip Lights Geometry – Activates the clipping of a light's geometry (for example, a mesh light).
Object ID – Sets Object ID to the intersections the clipping creates with geometry.
Clipper Exclude – Objects specified in this list will not be affected by the clipping plane.
Include Child Items – When enabled, considers children items to the items or groups selected in the Clipper Exclude dropdown list as well.
As Exclusive list – When disabled only objects in the Clipper Exclude list will be clipped.