The camera rollout controls the way the scene geometry is projected onto the image. The cameras in V-Ray generally define the rays that are cast into the scene, which essentially is how the scene is projected onto the screen.
UI Path: ||V-Ray Asset Editor|| > Settings > Camera rollout
By default, the set camera shows only the Basic settings needed to adjust your camera to help create a decent render. This can be changed to Advanced Settings with the switch button at the right top corner of the Camera settings area.
Type – Specifies the type of the camera.
Standard – A standard pinhole camera.
VR Spherical Panorama – Spherical camera with independent horizontal and vertical FOV selection that is useful for generating latlong images for spherical VR use.
VR Cubemap – A variant of the Box camera with the cube sides arranged in a single row. Unlike the Box camera's output, Cube6x1 does not produce an empty space in the output image and is useful in generating cubic VR output.
Stereo – Enables or disables the Stereoscopic rendering mode. Stereoscopic images are rendered "side by side" or "one on top of the other" based on the Output Layout option. You don't need to re-adjust the image resolution as it will adapt automatically.
Exposure – Enables the Physical camera. When enabled, the Exposure Value, F-Number, Shutter Speed and ISO settings will affect the overall brightness of the image.
Exposure Value (EV) – Controls the sensitivity of the Camera to the scene lighting levels.
White Balance – Objects in the scene that have the specified color will appear white in the image. Note that only the color hue is taken into consideration; the brightness of the color is ignored. There are several presets that can be used, most notably the Daylight preset for exterior scenes. For more information, see the White Balance example below.
Exposure (Advanced Settings)
Film Sensitivity (ISO) – Determines the film power (i.e. sensitivity). Smaller values make the image darker, while larger values make it brighter. For more information, see the ISO example below.
Aperture (F Number) – Determines the width of the camera aperture. For more information, see the Exposure Control: F Number example below.
Shutter Speed (1/s) – The shutter speed, in inverse seconds, for the still photographic camera. For example, a shutter speed of 1/30 of a second corresponds to a value of 30 for this parameter. For more information, see the Shutter example below.
Depth of Field
Depth of Field – Defines the shape of the camera aperture. When disabled, a perfectly circular aperture is simulated. When enabled, a polygonal aperture is simulated with the specified number of blades.
Focus Source – Choose the way the camera focus is determined.
Fixed Distance – The camera focus is fixed to the Focus Distance value. Use the button on the right to pick a point in 3D space to set the camera focus distance. The distance between the render camera and the point is calculated and then the result used as Focus Distance. This calculation is not automatic and the same action has to be repeated every time the camera moves.
Camera Target – The focus distance is automatically calculated before the rendering starts and equals the distance between the camera position and the target.
Fixed Point – The focus distance is automatically calculated before the rendering starts and equals the distance between the camera position and the 3D point selected. Use the button on the right to select a point in the scene.
Pick Point – Determines the position in 3d space by picking in the viewport where the camera should be in focus.
Focus Distance – Focus Distance affects the Depth of Field and determines which part of the scene will be in focus.
Bokeh (Advanced Settings)
Bokeh – Enabled this option to simulate the polygonal shape of the aperture of real-world cameras. When this option is off, the shape is assumed to be perfectly circular.
Blade Count – Sets the number of sides for the polygonal shape of the aperture.
Center Bias – Defines a bias shape of the bokeh. A value of 0.0 means that light passes uniformly through the aperture. Positive values make the light concentrate towards the rim of the aperture, while negative values concentrate light at the center.
Rotation – Defines the orientation of the blades in degress.
Anisotropy – Allows the stretching of the bokeh effect horizontally or vertically. Positive values stretch the effect in the vertical direction. Negative values stretch it in the horizontal direction.
Vignetting – Specify the amount of the vignetting effect, where 0.0 is no vignetting and 1.0 is normal vignetting. For more information, see the Vignetting example below.
Vertical Tilt – Using this parameter you can achieve a 2 point perspective effect.
Example: White Balance
Using the white balance color allows additional modification of the image output. Objects in the scene that have the specified color will appear white in the image. E.g. for daylight scenes this value could be peach color to compensate for the color of the sun light etc.
F Number is 8.0, Shutter speed is 200.0, ISO is 200.0, Vignetting is on.
This parameter controls the simulation of the optical vignetting effect of real-world cameras.
Vignetting is 0.0 (vignetting is disabled)
Vignetting is 1.0
Example: Exposure Control: Film Speed (ISO)
This parameter determines the sensitivity of the film and so the brightness of the image. If the film speed (ISO) is high (film is more sensitive to the light), the image is brighter. Lower ISO values mean that the film is less sensitive and produces a darker image.
Exposure is on, Shutter Speed is 60.0, F Number is 8.0, Vignetting is on, White balance is white.
ISO is 400
ISO is 800
ISO is 1600
Example: Exposure Control: F Number
Note: All the images from the following examples are rendered using the VRaySunSky set with their default parameters.
This parameter controls the aperture size of the virtual camera. Lowering the F Number value increases the aperture size and so makes the image brighter, since more light enters the camera. In reverse, increasing the F Number makes the image darker, as the aperture is closed.
Shutter speed is 60.0, ISO is 200, Vignetting is on, White balance is white.
F Number is 8.0
F Number is 6.0
F Number is 4.0
Example: Exposure Control: Shutter Speed
This parameter determines the exposure time for the virtual camera. The longer this time is (small Shutter speed value), the brighter the image would be. In reverse - if the exposure time is shorter (high Shutter speed value), the image would get darker. This parameter also affects the motion blur effect, see White balance .
Exposure is on, F Number is 8.0, ISO is 200, Vignetting is on, White balance is white.
Shutter speed is 125.0
Shutter speed is 60.0
Shutter speed is 30.0