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The BRDFCarPaint material is a material that simulates a metallic car paint. It is a complex material with four layers: a base diffuse layer, a base glossy layer, metallic flakes layer, and clear coat layer. The material allows the adjustment of each of these layers separately.

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Quick Settings

Parameters

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Base

Color – Specifies – Specifies the diffuse color for the base layer.

Base Glossiness – Specifies reflection glossiness for the base layer.

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Flake Density – Controls the number of flakes for a certain area. Lower values produce fewer flakes and higher values produce more flakes. Set this to  0.0 to produce a material without flakes. For more information, see The Flake Density Parameter example below.

Flake Size – Controls the size of the flakes relative to the distance between them. Higher values produce bigger flakes and lower values produce smaller flakes. For more information, see The Flake Size Parameter example below.

Coat Color – Specifies the color of the coat layer.

Coat Glossiness – Controls the glossiness of the coat reflections.

Coat Strength – Specifies the strength of the coat reflections when the surface is viewed directly from the front.

 

Base

 

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Base Color Please see the Quick Settings section above.

Base Reflection – Specifies the reflectivity of the base layer. The reflection color itself is the same as the Base color.

Base Glossiness – Please see the Quick Settings section above.

Map Type Glossiness – Specifies reflection glossiness for the base layer.

Base Bump

Mode/ Map – Specifies the type of bump map or normal map to apply to the base layer if a map file is specified.

Bump Map 
Normal Map in Tangent Space Normal Map in Object Space
Normal Map in Camera Space
Normal Map in World Space

Map – Specifies a file to use as a bump or normal map.

Base Bump MultiplierAmount A multiplier for the bump/normal effect.

 

Flakes

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Flake ColorPlease see the Quick Settings section above – Specifies the color of the metal flakes.

Flake Glossiness – Specifies the glossiness of the metal flakes. It is not recommended to set this above 0.9 as it may produce artifacts.

Flake Orientation – Controls the orientation of the flakes relative to the surface normal. When this is 0.0, all flakes are perfectly aligned with the surface. When it is 1.0, the flakes are rotated completely randomly with respect to the normal. Values above 0.5 are not recommended as they can produce artifacts. For more information, see The The Flake Orientation Parameter example  example below.Flake

Density

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 – Controls the number of flakes for a certain area. Lower values produce less flakes and higher values produce more flakes. Set this to 0.0 to produce a material without flakes. See the The Flake Density Parameter example

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 below.

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Scale

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 – Controls the scale of the entire flake structure. For more information,

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see The Flake Scale Parameter

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example below.

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Size – 

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Controls the size of the flakes relative to the distance between them. Higher values produce bigger flakes and lower values produce smaller flakes. For more information, see The Flake Size Parameter example

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 below.

Mapping/ UV– Specifies the method for mapping the flakes.

Mapping Channel – Flakes are mapped using the specified channel.
Triplanar – The material automatically computes mapping coordinates in object space based on the surface normals.

Filtering Mode – Determines the way the flakes are filtered. Filtering is extremely important to reduce the work required to produce a clean image.

Simple – Faster and uses less RAM, but is less accurate. It averages the orientation of the flakes together, which may alter the appearance of the material when viewed from a distance.
Directional  – Slightly slower and uses more RAM, but is more accurate. It groups the flakes based on their orientation before performing the filtering, so that the material appearance is preserved.
For more information, see see 
The Flake Filtering Parameter example below below.

Flake Map Size  – Internally the material creates several bitmaps to store the generated flakes. This parameter determines the size of the bitmaps. Lower values reduce RAM usage, but may produce noticeable tiling in the flake structure. Higher values require more RAM, but tiling is reduced. Be careful when using the Directional filtering method, as it may quickly take up gigabytes of RAM for larger map sizes. For more information, see Anti-aliasing Aliasing Filters example below.

Flake Seed – Sets the random seed for the flakes. Changing this produces different flake patterns.

Mapping Type – Specifies the method for mapping the flakes.

Explicit Mapping Channel – Flakes are mapped using the specified channel.
Triplanar Projection in Object Space – The material automatically computes mapping coordinates in object space based on the surface normals.

Mapping Channel – Specifies the mapping channel for the flakes when the Flake Mapping Type is set to Explicit Mapping Channel.

Trace Reflections – When disabled, the flakes will only produce specular highlights, but no actual reflections will be traced.

 


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FlakeOrientation
FlakeOrientation

Example: The Flake Orientation Parameter

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No filtering and no anti-aliasing; the result is very noisy because of the small flake size.

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No filtering, Adaptive DMC anti-aliasing. The result is accurate, but very slow since a lot of AA samples are required to anti-alias the flakes.

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Flake filtering set to Simple, no anti-aliasing. The filtering greatly reduces the noise but alters the appearance of the material.

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Flake filtering set to Directional, no anti-aliasing. The noise is reduced and the material appearance is correctly preserved.

 

 

 

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Example: Anti-aliasing Filters

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Note that rendering with a particular filter is is not the same as rendering without a filter and then blurring the image in a post-processing program like Adobe Photoshop. Filters are applied on a sub-pixel level, over the individual sub-pixel samples. Therefore, applying the filter at render time produces a much more accurate and subtle result than applying it as a post effect. V-Ray can use all standard 3ds Max filters (with the exception of the Plate match filter) and produces similar results to the scanline renderer. 

The Adaptive image sampler was used for the images below, with Min/Max rate of -1/3 and the Rand option on.

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Directional filtering
Flake map size is 256.
Flake maps take 10 MB.

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Directional filtering
Flake map size is 512.
Flake maps take 40 MB.

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Directional filtering
Flake map size is 1024.
Flake maps take 161 MB.

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Directional filtering
Flake map size
is 2048.
Flake maps take 645 MB.

 

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Coat Layer Parameters

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Coat

Color Please see the Quick Settings section above – Specifies the color of the coat layer.

Coat Strength – Please see the Quick Settings section above.

Coat Glossiness – Please see the Quick Settings section above.

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 – Specifies the strength of the coat reflections when the surface is viewed directly from the front. 

Glossiness – Controls the glossiness of the coat reflections.

Coat Bump

Mode/Map – Specifies the type of bump map or normal map to apply to the coat layer if a map file is specified.

Bump Map 
Normal Map in Tangent Space Normal Map in Object Space
Normal Map in Camera Space
Normal Map in World Space

Map – Specifies a file to use as a bump or normal map.

Base Bump Multiplier – A multiplier for the bump/normal effect.

 

Options

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Single Scatter Subdivisions – Determines the number of samples to make for the glossy reflections of the different layers.

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Amount – Multiplies the bump map effect. 

 

Reflection Options (All Layers)

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Trace Depth – Specifies the maximum number of times a ray will be reflected by the material. 

Cutoff  Specifies a threshold below which reflections will not be traced. V-Ray tries to estimate the contribution of reflections to the image, and if it is below this threshold, these effects are not computed. Do not set this to 0.0 as it may cause excessively long render times in some cases.

Double Sided – When enabled, V-Ray will flip the normal for back-facing surfaces with this material. Otherwise, the lighting on the "outer" side of the material will be computed always. This can be used to achieve a fake translucent effect for thin objects like paper.

Trace Reflections  – When disabled, reflections from the different layers are not traced, and they will only produce specular highlights.

Max Depth – Specifies the maximum number of times a ray will be reflected by the material

Base Reflections – When disabled, the base layer only produces specular highlights, but no actual reflections are traced. 

Flake Reflections – When disabled, the flakes only produces specular highlights, but no actual reflections are traced. 

Coat Reflections – When disabled, the coat layer only produces specular highlights, but no actual reflections are traced. 

 

Multipliers

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Base Color – Specifies a multiplier for the texture loaded in the Base Color slot.

Base Reflection – Specifies a multiplier for the texture loaded in the Base Reflection slot.

Base Glossiness – Specifies a multiplier for the texture loaded in the Base Glossiness slot.

Base Map – Specifies a multiplier for the texture loaded in the Base Map slot.

Base Bump Multiplier – Specifies a multiplier for the texture loaded in the Base Bump Multiplier slot.

Flake Color – Specifies a multiplier for the texture loaded in the Flake Color slot.

Flake Glossiness – Specifies a multiplier for the texture loaded in the Flake Glossiness slot.

Flake Orientation – Specifies a multiplier for the texture loaded in the Flake Orientation slot.

Coat Color – Specifies a multiplier for the texture loaded in the Coat Color slot.

Coat Strength – Specifies a multiplier for the texture loaded in the Coat Strength slot.

Coat Glossiness – Specifies a multiplier for the texture loaded in the Coat Glossiness slot.

Coat Map – Specifies a multiplier for the texture loaded in the Coat Map slot.

Coat Bump Multiplier – Specifies a multiplier for the texture loaded in the Coat Bump Multiplier slot.

 

Options

Main

 

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Disable Volume Fog – When disabled, V-Ray will trace direct lighting into the material.

Only in Secondary – When enabled, the material will only be visible in the reflection or refraction.

Reflect on Backside – When enabled, reflections will be computed for back-facing surfaces too. Note that this affects total internal reflections (when refractions are computed).

Mode – Specifies how textures and colors are blended by the multipliers. 

Multiplier – When set to Multiply, the texture is blended with black color. 
Blend Amount – When Blend Amount is selected, the user-specified color is used for blending. 

Base Color – Blends between the assigned texture and the mode specific color.

Base Glossiness – Blends between the assigned texture and the mode specific color.

Flake Color – Blends between the assigned texture and the mode specific color.

Flake Glossiness – Blends between the assigned texture and the mode specific color.

Coat Color – Blends between the assigned texture and the mode specific color.

Coat Glossiness – Blends between the assigned texture and the mode specific color.

Coat Strength – Blends between the assigned texture and the mode specific color.

 

Material Options

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Can be Overridden – When enabled, the material will be overridden when you enable the override color option in the Global Switches.

Cast Shadows – When disabled, the material will not cast shadows.

Refraction Max Depth – Specifies the number of times a ray can be refracted. Scenes with lots of refractive and reflective surfaces may require higher values to look right. -1 means that V-Ray will use the value specified on the “Max Depth” in the Global Switches.

 

Ignore Objects in Secondary

 

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On  – When enabled, the material will not be overridden when you enable the Override Color option in the Global Switches.

Optimized Exclusion – When enabled, the material will not be overridden when you enable the override color option in the Global Switches.

 

Color Options

 

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Alpha Contribution – Allows the alpha channel of each material in the scene to be obtained. A value of 1 means no alpha and 0 means full alpha.

ID Color – Specifies a unique color that will be visible when rendering using the ID Color VFB Channel.

Material resultAllows the user to specify a Render Element for capturing the material's contribution to the scene.

 

Maps

This rollout contains the different texture maps for the various parameters of the material.

 

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Bump

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Alpha contribution – Determines the appearance of the object in the alpha channel of the rendered image.

Normal (1) – A value of 1.0 means the alpha channel will be derived from the transparency of the material.
Ignore in Alpha (0)   A value of 0.0 means the object will not appear in the alpha channel at all. 
Black Alpha (-1) – A value of -1.0 means that the transparency of the material will cut out from the alpha of the objects behind. 

ID Color – Allows you to specify a color to represent this material in the Material ID VFB render element. 

Invisible for Reflections/Refractions – When enabled the objects with this material will not appear in reflections and refractions.

Optimize exclusion – Enables an alternative calculation method. This option is not recommended.

Maps

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These determine the various texture maps used by the material.

Bump/Normal Mapping

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Bump/ Normal Mapping – Enables or disables the bump or normal effect.

Texture – Specifies a texture to be used as a bump or normal map.

Bump Type – Specifies whether a bump map or a normal map effect will be added to the base material.

Bump
Normal map (Tangent space)
Normal map (Object space)
Normal map (Camera space)
Normal map (World space )
Bump map (Local space)
Explicit normals

 

Displacement

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Mode/Map – Specifies the map type. 

Bump Map
Local Space Bump 
Normal map 

Amount – A multiplier for the bump/normal map. 

Advanced Options

Normal Map Type – Specifies the normal map type. 

Tangent space
Object space
Screen space
World space 

Delta Scale – Decrease the value of the parameter to sharpen the bump, increase it for more blurry effect of the bump. 

 

Displacement

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Displacement – Enables or disables the displacement effect.

Texture – Specifies a texture to be used as a displacement map.

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Mode/ Map – Specifies the mode in which the displacement is rendered. 

2D Displacement – Bases the displacement on a texture map that is known in advanced. The displaced surface is rendered as a warped height-field based on that texture map. The actual raytracing of the displaced surface is done in texture space and the result is mapped back into 3D space. The advantage of this method is that it preserves all details in the displacement map. However, it requires the object to have valid texture coordinates. You cannot use this method for 3d procedural textures or other textures that use object or world coordinates. The parameter can take any values. 
Normal Displacement – Takes the original surface geometry and subdivides its triangles into smaller sub-triangles, which then are displaced. 

Amount – The amount of displacement. A value of 0.0 means the object appears unchanged. Higher values produce a greater displacement effect. This parameter can also take a negative value, in which case the displacement pushes geometry inside the object. 

Shift – Specifies a constant, which is added to the displacement map values, effectively shifting the displaced surface up and down along the normals. This can be either positive or negative.

Keep continuity – When enabled, tries to produce a connected surface, without splits, when there are faces from different smoothing groups and/or material IDs. Note that using material IDs is not a very good way to combine displacement maps since V-Ray cannot always guarantee the surface continuity. Use other methods (vertex colors, masks etc.) to blend different displacement maps.

Use globals – When enabled, the Edge Length and Max Subdivs parameters will be determined by the global settings in the V-Ray Render Settings menu.

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View dependent – When enabled, Edge length determines the maximum length of a subtriangle edge in pixels. A value of 1.0 means that the longest edge of each subtriangle

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is about one pixel long when projected on the screen. When disabled, Edge length

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 is the maximum sub-triangle edge length in world units.

Shift – Specifies a constant, which will be added to the displacement map values, effectively shifting the displaced surface up and down along the normals. This can be either positive or negative.

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Edge length – Determines the quality of the displacement. Each triangle of the original mesh is subdivided into a number of subtriangles. More subtriangles mean more detail in the displacement, slower rendering times and more RAM usage. Less subtriangles mean less detail, faster rendering and less RAM. The meaning of Edge length depends on the View dependent parameter. 

Max subdivs – Controls the maximum sub-triangles generated from any triangle of the original mesh when the displacement type

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 The value is

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in fact

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Edge length – Determines the quality of the displacement. Each triangle of the original mesh is subdivided into a number of subtriangles. More subtriangles mean more detail in the displacement, slower rendering times and more RAM usage. Less subtriangles mean less detail, faster rendering, and less RAM. The meaning of Edge length depends on the View dependent parameter.

 

Overrides

 

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the square root of the maximum number of subtriangles. For example, a value of 256 means that at most 256 x 256 = 65536 subtriangles will be generated for any given original triangle. It is not a good idea to keep this value very high. If you need to use higher values, it will be better to tessellate the original mesh itself into smaller triangles instead. The actual subdivisions for a triangle are rounded up to the nearest power of two (this makes it easier to avoid gaps because of different tessellation on neighboring triangles).

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Water Level – Clips the surface geometry in places where the displacement map value is below the specified threshold. This can be used for clip mapping a displacement map value below which geometry will be clipped. 

Level Height – Value below which the geometry is clipped. 

 

Environment Overrides 

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Allows Background, Reflection, and Refraction maps from Environment Settings to be overridden for override the current material.

Override  

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Background – Enables and disables the specified map to override the corresponding map in Environment Settings

Color – Specifies a color for the overriding map.

Texture – Specifies a texture to be used as the overriding map.

the environment override. The slider works as an intensity multiplier. The checkbox allows you to assign a texture that overrides the environment for the material.  

Reflection – Enables the environment override. The slider works as an intensity multiplier. The checkbox allows you to assign a texture that overrides the environment for the material.  

Refraction – Enables the environment override. The slider works as an intensity multiplier. The checkbox allows you to assign a texture that overrides the environment for the material. 


Notes

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Fancy Bullets
typecircle
  • The BRDFCarPaint material needs to precalculate several textures related to the flakes. Depending on the Flake map size parameter, this may take a few seconds. When working in the material editor, this may lead to slight delays between changing a parameter and the update of the material swatch